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APA citation style: APA examples

A guide to using the APA 6th edition referencing system for in-text citations and reference lists.


The preferred style for all UWA Psychology, Education, Music Psychology, Music Education and Nursing papers is APA. The authoritative guide to APA referencing is the Publication Manual, 6th edition, so please refer to this if in doubt. There are 2 variations from the Manual as used at UWA.  These were arrived at in consultation with the UWA School of Psychology.  They are:

  • If no DOI (digital object identifier) is assigned and the article or e-book is retrieved from a database, included the name of the database. There is no need to establish if the item is only available from that database or to look for the URL of the journal or book's own web site.
  • Include the journal issue number if available.  There is no need to check if a journal paginates by volume or by issue.

Note: With the 6th edition, retrieval date is no longer required for online materials except for sources which have very volatile content eg wikis.

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 6th ed.  
Call Number: Print: EDFAA, Reid & Science
Reference 808.06615 2010 PUB

                                       APA Style Guide to Electronic References
        Call Number: Online

APA Citation Style Examples Print Version (PDF)

APA Citation Style Examples for UWA


Material types 



Books and eBooks    3-5 authors repeated citations For 1,2,3-5 or 6-7 author
Chapter in book   Article from CMO 8 or more authors
Conference    Author & publisher the same Author/year same, 2 or more works
Dictionary/encyclopaedia entries Citing a work that someone else has cited Editor/s
Images    Direct quotes & paraphrases First author/ year same, 3+ authors 2+ works
Journal articles    Multiple citations in one reference Linking multiple authors: & or and
Multimedia & Software No date available (n.d.) No author - Article
Music Numbered edition other than 1st No author - Book
Newspaper Retrieved from a database Organisation as author
Reports  Retrieval date (if required)  Parentheses () or brackets [] for extra information
Standards & Patents Title which includes a subtitle
Tables & Figures (republished or
Web sources (page, fact
sheets, blog etc)

   Rules for naming authors, in-text and the reference list, are given mainly under Books & ebooks but they apply to all reference types.
    In most examples of in-text citations with multiple authors only the first iteration is given.

Books and eBooks [Top]

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Book: Single author

(Pegrum, 2009)

Pegrum, M. (2009). From blogs to bombs: The future of electronic 
    technologies in education
. Crawley, W.A: UWA Publishing.

Book: Two authors

(O’Donoghue & Clarke, 2010)

But when outside parenthesis:

O’Donoghue and Clarke (2010) suggested that...

O’Donoghue, T., & Clarke, S. (2010). Leading learning: Process,  
    themes and issues in international contexts
. London: Routledge.

Book: 3-5 authors

First citation:
(Ranzijn, McConnochie, & Nolan, 2009)

 Subsequent citations:
(Ranzijn et al., 1997)

Ranzijn, R., McConnochie, K., & Nolan, W. (2009). Psychology and 
    indigenous Australians: Foundations of cultural competence

    South Yarra, Vic: Palgrave MacMillan.

If you have two or more references with the same first author and date,
name as many authors as necessary to distinguish the references in every iteration.

Book: 6-7 authors
(See Journal Articles for 8 or more authors)

(Jones et al., 1984)

Jones, E. E., Farina, A., Hastorf, A. H., Markus, H., Miller, D. T., & Scott, R. A. (1984). Social stigma: The psychology of marked relationships. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Book: Different editions

(Howitt & Cramer, 2008)

Howitt, D., & Cramer, D. (2008). Introduction to research methods in 
(2nd ed.). Harlow, England: FT Prentice Hall.

Book: No author

(The Australian Oxford dictionary, 1999)

The Australian Oxford dictionary (3rd ed.). (1999). 
    Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Book: Editor

(Hallinan, 2006)

Hallinan, M. T. (Ed.). (2006). Handbook of the sociology of education
    New York: Springer.

Book: 2 or more editors

(Dawson & Venville, 2007)

Dawson, V., & Venville, G. (Eds.). (2007). The art of teaching  
    primary science
. Crows Nest, N.S.W: Allen & Unwin.

Book: Organisation as Author

(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2000)

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2000). Population  by age
    and sex, New South Wales, 30 June 2000
(ABS Cat. no. 3235.1). 
    Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author.

Where the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.

Book: Chapter [i.e. Article] in edited book

 (Groundwater-Smith, 2007)

 Groundwater-Smith, S. (2007). As rain is to fields, so good teachers are  
    to students. In S. Knipe (Ed.), Middle years schooling: Reframing 
 (pp. 151-170). Frenchs Forest, N.S.W: Pearson Education Australia.

eBook: Entire book

(Chisum, 2006)

Chisum, W. J. (2006). Crime reconstruction [Adobe Digital 
    Editions]. Retrieved from Ebook Library.

eBook: Chapter

(Mitchell, 1913)

Mitchell, H. W. (1913). Alcoholism and the alcoholic psychoses. 
    In W. A. White & S. E. Jelliffe (Eds.), The modern treatment of  
    nervous and mental diseases
 (Vol. 1, pp. 287-330). Retrieved from  

Book: Different works by same author in same year

Distinguish the works by placing ‘a’ ‘b’ ‘c’, etc after the publication date

(Glenn & Johnson, 1964a)
(Glenn & Johnson, 1964b)

Glenn, W. H., & Johnson, D. A. (1964a). Calculating devices. London: 
    John Murray. 

Glenn, W. H., & Johnson, D. A. (1964b). Graphs 
    London: Murray.

Reference book: Entry

(Keyormarsi, O’Leary, & Pardee, 2007)

Keyormarsi, K., O’Leary, N., & Pardee, A. B. (2007). Cell division. In  
encyclopedia of science & technology (9th ed., Vol. 3,  
    pp. 618-621). New York: McGraw-Hill.

eReference book: Entry

(Keyormarsi & Pardee, 2014)

Keyormarsi, K., & Pardee, A. B. (2014). Cell division. In 
    McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science & technology.  
    Retrieved from AccessScience.

Journal Articles [Top]

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Journal article in print: 8 or more authors

(Sohrabi et al., 2011)

Sohrabi, H. R., Weinborn, M., Badcock, J., Bates, K. A., Clarnette, R., 
    Trivedi, D., ... Martins, R. N. (2011). New lexicon and criteria for the diagnosis of  
    Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet Neurology, 10(4), 299-300.

Complete author list: Sohrabi, H. R., Weinborn, M., Badcock, J. Bates, K. A., Clarnette,R., Trivedi, D., Verdile, G., Sutton, T., Lenzo, N. P., Gandy, S. E., Martins, R. N.

Journal article in print: With direct quotation or paraphrase

(Greenop et al., 2007, p. 31)


Greenop et al. (2007) reported that “AQ-D and DEX ratings by controls
were significantly lower
than those of the CIND participants” (p. 31), ...

Greenop, K. R., Xiao, J., Osvaldo, P. A., Flicker, L., Beer, C.,
    Foster, J. K., . . . Lautenschlager, N. T. (2011). Awareness of cognitive
    deficits in older adults with cognitive-impairment-no-dementia (CIND): Comparison
     with informant report. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 25(1), 24-33.

When paraphrasing text include page number/s in the in-text citation but do not use quotation marks. There is a right and a wrong way to paraphrase. - see the Study Smarter guide at

Journal article online: Digital Object Identifier supplied

First citation:
(Almeida, Dickinson, Mayberry, Badcock, & Badcock, 2010)

Subsequent citations:
(Almeida et al., 2010)

Almeida, R. A., Dickinson, J., Maybery, M. T., Badcock, J. C., & 
    Badcock, D. R. (2010).Visual search performance in the autism spectrum
    II: The radial frequency search task with additional segmentation cues.
    Neuropsychologia, 48(14), 4117-4124.

Journal article online: No DOI supplied (Pheme authentication required)

(Anderson & Reid, 2009)

Anderson, M., & Reid, C. (2009). Don’t forget about levels of
    explanation. Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous
    System and Behavior
, 45(4), 560-561. Retrieved from ScienceDirect.

Journal article online: No DOI supplied (free on the Web)

(Thomas & Bosch, 2005)

Thomas, K., & Bosch, B. (2005). An exploration of the impact of chronic  
    fatigue syndrome and implications for psychological service provision.  
    E-Journal of Applied Psychology: Clinical Section
, 1(1), 23-40. Retrieved from

Journal article online: CMO electronic database

(Best & Queen, 1989)

Best, C. T., & Queen, H. F. (1989). Baby it’s in your smile: Right hemiface 
    bias in infant emotional expressions. Developmental Psychology25(2), 
    264-276. Retrieved from University of Western Australia Course
    Materials Online.

[Note: This only applies to articles actually housed in CMO.  If the full text is in an external database other rules in this section need to be applied e.g. the CMO links opens in Education Full Text.]

Journal article online: Advance publication

(Starrfelt & Behrmann, 2011)

Starrfelt, R., & Behrmann, M. (2011). Number reading in pure alexia:  
    A review. Neuropsychologia. In press, Uncorrected proof.

Journal article online: in preprint archive

(Martinez, in press)

Martinez, M. (in press). Imperative content and the painfulness of pain. 
    Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences
    Retrieved  from

Journal article submitted for publication

Delgado, Suriyagoda, Zúñiga-Feest, Borie, & Lambers,  2014)

Delgado M., Suriyagoda L., Zúñiga-Feest A., Borie F., Lambers H. (2014). Divergent
    functioning of Proteaceae species: The South American Embothrium
    coccineum displays a combination of adaptive traits to survive in
    high-phosphorus soils
. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Conference Proceedings [Top]

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Paper in conference proceedings in print

(Game, 2001)

Game, A. (2001). Creative ways of being. In J. R. Morss, N. Stephenson 
    & J. F. H.  Rappard (Eds.), Theoretical issues in psychology: 
    Proceedings of the International Society for Theoretical Psychology 
    1999 Conference
(pp. 3-12). Sydney: Springer.

Paper in conference proceedings online: Electronic database

(Balakrishnan, 2006)

Balakrishnan, R. (2006, March). Why aren’t we using 3D user 
    interfaces,and will we ever
? Paper presented at the IEEE Symposium  
    on 3D User Interfaces.

Published in IEEE Explore but has doi. Conference is published regularly.

Conference papers: Unpublished

(Santhanam, Martin,
Goody, & Hicks, 2001)

Santhanam, E., Martin, K., Goody, A., & Hicks, O. (2011). Bottom-up  
    steps towards closing the loop in feedback on teaching: A CUTSD  
. Paper presented at Teaching and Learning Forum – Expanding  
    horizons in teaching and learning, Perth, Australia, 7-9 February 2001.

Reports  [Top]

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Government reports

(Western Australia. Department of Health Nursing and Midwifery Office, 2013).

Western Australia. Department of Health Nursing and Midwifery Office. (2013).
    Aboriginal Nursing and Midwifery Strategic Plan 2011-2015. Retrieved

Non-government reports   

(Kendall, 2011)

Kendall, C. (2011). Report on psychological distress and depression in
    the legal profession: Prepared for the Council of the Law Society of
    Western Australia. Retrieved from

Newspapers [Top]

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Newspaper article in print

(Hatch, 2006)

Hatch, B. (2006, July 13). Smoke lingers for those who keep hospitality
    flowing. Australian Financial Review, p. 14.

Newspaper article: No author

Use first few words of article title in quotation marks

(“Comstock drill plans,” 2009)

Comstock drill plans reined in. (2009, January 9). Upstream: The  
    International Oil and Gas Newspaper,
p. 20.

Newspaper article online: Electronic database

(O’Leary, 2006)

O’Leary, C. (2006, June 29). Landmark study to aid push for public 
    smoking ban. The West Australian, p. 14. Retrieved from Factiva.

Newspaper article online: freely available on the web

(Hilts, 1999)

Hilts, P.J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people
    flunk out. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Some online newspapers are un-paginated, so no page numbers can be given in the reference

Multimedia formats & Software [Top]

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Films or videorecordings and DVDs of films

(De Heer & Djigirr, 2007)

De Heer, R. (Director), Djigirr, P. (Co-Director). (2007). Ten canoes 
    [Motion picture]. Australia: The AV Channel.

Television programme

(Crystal, 1993)

Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The  
    MacNeil/Lehrer news hour
[Television broadcast]. New York and  
    Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.

Audio podcast

(Zijlstra, 2011)

Zijlstra, M. (Presenter). (2011, May 28). Natural semantic metalanguage
[Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Video podcast

(Kloft, 2006)

Kloft, M. (Producer/Director). (2006). The Nuremberg trials 
    [Motion picture]. In M. Samuels (Executive Producer), American 
. Podcast retrieved from WGBH:

YouTube video    

(PsycINFO, 2013)

PsycINFO. (2013, March 5). Sample PsycINFO search on OVIDSP
    [Video file].  Retrieved from


(Skyscape, 2011)

Skyscape, (2011). Skyscape Medical Resources (Version 1.14.8) 
    [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from                mt=8&ign=uo%3D4

Music resources [Top]

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Liner notes from a sound recording

(Hogwood, 1993)

Hogwood, C. (1993). [Linear notes]. On My Ladye Nevells booke [CD]. 
    London England: I’Oiseau-Lyre.

Sound recording: CD

(Maher, 1989)

Mahler, G. (1989). Symphony no. 1 in D Major: Titan. [CD]. Germany:
    Deutsche Grammophon.

Track from a sound recording

(Vine, 1996, track 1)

In text citations include side and band or track numbers

Vine, C. (1996). 5 bagatelles [Recorded by I. Munro]. On Mere 
[CD]. Australia: Tall Poppies.

Track from a sound recording: Online

(Vine, 5 bagatelles, 1996)

Vine, C. (1996). 5 bagatelles [Recorded by I. Munro]. On Mere  
[CD]. Australia: Tall Poppies. Retrieved from  
    Naxos Music Library.

Music score: Print

(Stravinsky, 1975)

Stravinsky, I. (1975). Rite of spring [Musical score]. 
    London: Hansen House.

Music score: Online

(Stravinsky, 1975)

Stravinsky, I. (1975). Rite of spring [Musical score].  
    London. Hansen House. Retrieved from Classical Scores Library.

Music score in set of complete works

(Verdi, 1983)

Verdi, G. (1983). Rigoletto: Melodrama in three acts. In P. Gossett  
    (Series Ed.) & M. Chusid (Vol. Ed.), The works of Giuseppe Verdi:  
    Series 1, Operas
(Vol.17) [Musical score]. Chicago: University of  
    Chicago Press.

Music score in an anthology

(Schumann, 1849/1988)

Schumann, R. (1988). Kennst du das Land [Knowest thou where],  
    Op. 79
[Vocal score]. In C. V. Palisca (Ed.), Norton Anthology of  
    Western Music
(2nd ed., pp. 338-342). New York, NY: Norton.  
    (Original work published in 1849)


(Sondheim, 2008)

Sondheim, S. & Lapine, J. (2008). Into the woods [Libretto]. New York:  
    Theatre Communications Group, Inc.

Standards & Patents [Top]

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Standard: Print

(Standards Australia/New Zealand Standard, 1994)

Standards Australia. (1994). Information Processing – Text and office 
    systems – Office Document Architecture (ODA) and Interchange 
    format: Part 10: Formal Specifications
(AS/NZS 3951.10:1994).  
    Homebush, NSW: Standards Australia.

Standard online: Electronic database

(Standards Australia, 2008)

Standards Australia. (2008). Personal flotation devices – General  
(AS 4758.1-2008). Retrieved from Standards Online.


(U.S. Patent No. 5,641,424.7)

Hornak, P. (1996). Resonator for magnetic resonance imaging of the ankle. U.S. 
    Patent No. 5,641,424.7 Aug. 1996.

Patent online: Electronic database

(Australian Patent No. AU 2008100919, 2008)

Clark, J. M. & McCallum, J. M. (2008). Method for and composition of  
    excipient suitable for use in herbal formulations and formulations 
    derived therefrom
. Australian Patent AU 2008100919.  
    Retrieved from SciFinder.

Theses [Top]

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Thesis in print: Unpublished

(Lockhart, 2009)

Lockhart, E. (2009). The physical education curriculum choices of  
    Western Australian primary school teachers
(Unpublished master’s 
    thesis). University of Western Australia

Thesis in print: Published

(May, 2007)

May, B. (2007) A survey of radial velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud. 
    Bristol, UK: Canopus Publishing

Thesis online: Electronic database

(Rich, 1989)

Rich, P. D. (1989). The rule of ritual in the Arabian Gulf, 1858-1947: 
    The influence of English public schools
(Doctoral dissertation). 
    Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses – UK & Ireland.  
    (AAT 8918197)

Thesis online: Institutional repository

(Bari, 2006)

Bari, M. (2006). A distributed conceptual model for stream salinity  
    generation processes : A systematic data-based approach
    (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from  

Web sources [Top]

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Web page

(Australian Psychological Society, 2008)

Australian Psychological Society. (2008). Substance abuse:  
    Position statement
. Retrieved from

Note: When citing an entire website and not a particular document on the website give the address in-text only. No reference entry required (See APA Style Guide to Electronic Sources, 2013, p. 32) 

Web page: No author

(“Improve indigenous housing”, 2007)

Use the first few words of the page title

Improve indigenous housing now, governments told. (2007). Retrieved from

Web page: No date

(Jones, n.d.)

Jones, M. D. (n.d.). Commentary on indigenous housing initiatives.  
    Retrieved from

Web page: No author or date: With quote

(“Mindfulness mediation”, n.d., para 8)

Count paragraphs if not numbered

Mindfulness meditation. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Press release

(Perth Zoo, 2014)

Perth Zoo. (2014, March 11). Meerkat kits born at Perth Zoo [Press release].
    Retrieved from

Fact sheet

(CSIRO Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship, 2011)

CSIRO Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship. (2011).
    Driving sustainability through system innovation [Fact sheet].
    Retrieved from

Discussion forum

(Malissa, 2008)

Malissa, A. (2008, October 2). Re: Egypt planning DNA test on 3,500  
    year old  mummy [Online forum comment].     Retrieved  


(Brown, 2008)

Brown, M. (2008, November 1). A royal pardon for the British witches?  
    [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Electronic mailing list

(Anderson, 2005)

Anderson, O. (2005, June 2). Re: Psychology of terrorism  
    [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from


(Sports psychology, n.d.)

Sports psychology. (n.d.). In The psychology wiki. Retrieved  
    December 2, 2008, from

Tables & Figures [Top]

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

All of a table, figure, or data used in text. From a print journal

Adapted from “ A Conceptual validation study of the texture response on the Rorschach, " by A. Marsh and D. J. Viglione, 1992, Journal of Personality Assessment, 58(3), p. 576.

Marsh, A., & Viglione, D. J. (1992). A Conceptual validation study of the texture
    response on the Rorschach. Journal of Personality Assessment, 58(3), 571-579.

Republished or adapted tables, figures or data must be clearly marked and the original source provided in text and appended to the caption of the table or figure.

All of a table, figure or data used in text. From a book

Note. From "Thermophysical properties of fluids," p. 113, by M.J. Assael, 1998, London: Imperial College Press.

Assael, M. (1998). Thermophysical properties of fluids. London: Imperial
    College Press.

Part of a table, figure or data use in text. From the web

Note. The data in column # are from "International Merchandise Imports, Australia, Jan 2009", Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2009). International merchandise  
    imports Australia
, January 2009 (No. 5439.0), Retrieved from

Images [Top]

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Image original:Citation only in text

(Van Gogh, 1888)

Van Gogh, V. (Artist). (1888). Van Gogh’s Chair [Painting]. London:
   The National Gallery.

Image reproduction: Citation only in-text

...the painting ‘Mona Lisa’ (Gombrich 1995, p. 203) ...

Gombrich, E. H. (1995). The story of art (16th ed.). London: Phaidon.

Image used in text: Electronic database

(Primal Pictures, 2009)

Primal Pictures. (2009). Regional anatomy: Head and neck: Meninges  
   (layer 4, frame 19) [Image]. Retrieved from

Image used in text: Freely available on the Web

(Iinzart120, 2008)

Iinzart120 (2008). Illusions [Image]. Retrieved from

If no artist name is available, use the first few words of the image title

Multiple citations in one reference [Top]

Citation Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Multiple citations in one reference

(Anderson & Reid, 2009; Howitt & Cramer, 2008)

[Same order as reference list]

Anderson, M., & Reid, C. (2009). Don’t forget about levels of explanation.
    Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and  
, 45(4), 560-561. Retrieved from ScienceDirect.

Howitt, D., & Cramer, D. (2008). Introduction to research methods 
   in psychology
 (2nd ed.). Harlow, England: FT Prentice Hall.

Citing information someone else has cited [Top]

Citation Type

In-Text Citation

Reference List & Notes

Secondary citation

...O’Reilly, as cited in Byrne (2008) argues that...


O’Reilly (as cited in Byrne, 2008)

Byrne, A. (2008). Web 2.0 strategies in libraries and information services.  
   The Australian Library Journal, 57(4), 365-376.