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Ethnomusicology referencing guide: Introduction

A guide to referencing for students and staff studying ethnomusicology in the UWA School of Music

The Ethnomusicology referencing style

The basics

The Ethnomusicology referencing style is an author-date system. It has two components:

  • In-text citation
  • Reference list.

In-text citation

  • An in-text citation consists of the author(s) and the year of publication.
  • For journal articles, do not include the p., e.g. Early Music, 27(2) (1999): 100. For multiple pages, use the following method: Early Music, 27(2) (1999): 100-101. Only include the specific page referred to in the in-text citation.
  • Both direct and indirect quotations (paraphrasing) must be acknowledged. Lack of acknowledgement is plagiarism.
  • If you quote directly from an author or to cite a specific idea or piece of information from the source, you need to include the page number of the quote in your in-text citation:
    • Blacking (1973: 10) states that music is 'humanly organized sound'.
    • Bok (1984: 124-25) notes that secrecy is a social mechanism.
    • The study of dance remains a subject of investigation planted firmly on the periphery of ethnomusicological enquiry (Desmond 1993/4: 34).
  • Direct quotations should be enclosed with single quotation marks; if the citation is more than around 35 words, indent the quote, without quotation marks, and put it in 10 point font.
In-text example:

Paul Ricoeur's model of the 'hermeneutic arc' (1981: 164) has been adopted by

several ethnomusicologists, most notably Rice (1994) in his study of the  

musical experience of musicians in Bulgaria (other notable studies in

ethnomusicology influenced by phenomenology include Harnish 2001b,

Downey 2002 and Stone 1982).


Reference lists

  • The full details for each citation or reference is then listed at the end of your essay or assignment
  • References are listed in alphabetical order
  • State the author's surname first, followed by the first name or initial (e.g. Smith, John.)
  • When citing a journal article, include the full page numbers for the article, e.g. 165-217.
  • The format of the reference (i.e. how it is displayed) depends on the type of reference you are citing; below is an example of a journal article reference
  • See Reference formats tab for a full list of reference examples
Reference list entry example journal article:
Baulch, Emma. 2003. Gesturing Elsewhere: The Identity Politics of the Balinese Death/Thrash Metal Scene.  Popular Music 22(2): 195-215.


  1. Authors, author initials
  2. Year of publication
  3. Article title
  4. Journal title
  5. Volume
  6. Issue number
  7. Page numbers

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