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Harvard citation style: Introduction

This guide shows students and staff how to reference using the Harvard Referencing style.

In this guide...

click on the links below for further information on referencing each material type



Reference Formats


  • No Authors
  • 1, 2 or More Authors
  • No Editors
  • 1, 2 or More Editors
  • Chapters in Books

Cases and Legislation

  • Cases
  • Acts of Parliament
  • Delegated Legislation
  • Bills

Company Information

  • Company Reports
  • Company Profiles

Conference Proceedings

  • Print
  • Online


  • Websites
  • Blogs
  • Web Images
  • Web Documents
  • Computer Software

Journal Articles

  • CMO Articles
  • Print
  • Online

Lecture Notes


Multimedia Formats

  • Audio-Visual Material

Newspaper Articles

  • Print
  • Online

Patents & Standards


Tables and Figures

All Examples

  • A table of examples in all formats for quick reference


Why is referencing important?

Referencing or citing your sources is an important part of academic writing. It lets you acknowledge the ideas or words of others if you use them in your work and helps avoid plagiarism.

Referencing also demonstrates that you've read relevant background literature and you can provide authority for statements you make in your assignments.

The Harvard citation style can vary in minor features such as punctuation, capitalisation, abbreviations, and the use of italics.

The examples in this guide have been developed in collaboration with the UWA Business School. Always check with your lecturer/tutor for which citation style they prefer you to use.

Getting started

There are two components to referencing: in-text citations in your paper and the reference list at the end of your paper.

The in-text citation:

Harvard is an 'author/date' system, so your in-text citation consists of author(s) and year of publication.


In-text citation of a book (the same format applies for a journal article)

(Smith & Bruce 1997).  Use round brackets and do not punctuate between author surname and date

If you quote directly from an author or paraphrase a specific idea or piece of information from a source, you need to include the page number of the quote or passage in your in-text citation.


(Smith & Bruce 1997, p. 8)


The reference list:

All in-text citations should be listed in the reference list at the end of your document.


Reference list entry for a book

Smith, J & Bruce, S 1997, <i>A Guide to personnel management</i>, 4th edn. McGraw Hill, Sydney.  Title is italicised.

Reference list entry for a journal

Authors surname, initials date, 'Article title', <i>Journal Title</i>, volume, issue, page range.

Reference list entries contain all the information that someone needs to follow up your source. Reference lists in Harvard are arranged alphabetically by first author.

Harvard all examples PDF