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Musicology referencing guide: Introduction

A guide to referencing for students and staff studying musicology in the UWA School of Music

The Musicology referencing style

The basics

The Musicology Referencing style is a short-title system. It has two components:

  • Footnote citation
  • Reference list.

Footnote citation

  • A superscript number is inserted in your text at the point where you refer to (cite) your source of information.
  • State the author's name or initial before the surname (e.g. John Smith).
  • For books, cite a page reference as p. 3 (for a single page), or pp. 3-6 for more than one page.
  • For journal articles, do not include the p., e.g. Early Music, 27/2 (1999): 100. For multiple pages, use the following method: Early Music, 27/2 (1999): 100-101. Only include the specific page referred to in the footnote citation.
  • Ibid. is used to indicate that the (immediately preceding) previous reference has been used again. If the same page is involved, just write Ibid. (with fullstop). If the source is the same but a different page number is now being cited, write Ibid., p. 6 (or if it is a journal article, Ibid., 6.).
  • Both direct and indirect quotations (paraphrasing) must be acknowledged. Lack of acknowledgement is plagiarism.
  • Direct quotations should be enclosed with single quotation marks; if the citation is more than around 35 words, indent the quote, without quotation marks, and put it in 10 point font.
Footnote example:

Glanville-Hicks was by no means the first to make this connection. The

British Scholar Winnington-Ingram had come to a similar conclusion

more than 20 years earlier, observing that 'in all probability [ancient]

Greek music was closely related to that of the contemporary Orient ...'.1


1R.P. Winnington-Ingram, Mode in Ancient Greek Music (London: Cambridge University Press, 1936), p. vii.


Reference list

  • The full details for each citation or reference is then listed at the end of your essay or assignment
  • References are listed in alphabetical order
  • State the author's surname first, followed by the first name or initial (e.g. Smith, John)
  • When citing a journal article, include the full page numbers for the article, e.g. 165-217.
  • The format of the reference (i.e. how it is displayed) depends on the type of reference you are citing; below is an example of a journal article reference
  • See Reference formats tab for a full list of reference examples
Reference list entry example journal article:
Glanville-Hicks, P.,'Paul Bowles, American Composer',  Music and Letters, 26/2 (1945): 88-96.


  1. Authors, author initials
  2. Article title
  3. Journal title
  4. Volume
  5. Issue number
  6. Year of publication
  7. Page numbers

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